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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 – They developed the world’s smallest machines

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry

A tiny lift, artificial muscles and miniscule motors. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 is awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa for their design and production of molecular machines. They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 to

Jean-Pierre Sauvage,
University of Strasbourg, France

Sir J. Fraser Stoddart
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

and

Bernard L. Feringa
University of Groningen, the Netherlands

“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines” 

The development of computing demonstrates how the miniaturisation of technology can lead to a revolution. The 2016 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have miniaturised machines and taken chemistry to a new dimension.

The first step towards a molecular machine was taken by Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 1983, when he succeeded in linking two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain, called a catenane. Normally, molecules are joined by strong covalent bonds in which the atoms share electrons, but in the chain they were instead linked by a freer mechanical bond. For a machine to be able to perform a task it must consist of parts that can move relative to each other. The two interlocked rings fulfilled exactly this requirement.

The second step was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed a rotaxane. He threaded a molecular ring onto a thin molecular axle and demonstrated that the ring was able to move along the axle. Among his developments based on rotaxanes are a molecular lift, a molecular muscle and a molecule-based computer chip.

Bernard Feringa was the first person to develop a molecular motor; in 1999 he got a molecular rotor blade to spin continually in the same direction. Using molecular motors, he has rotated a glass cylinder that is 10,000 times bigger than the motor and also designed a nanocar.

2016’s Nobel Laureates in Chemistry have taken molecular systems out of equilibrium’s stalemate and into energyfilled states in which their movements can be controlled. In terms of development, the molecular motor is at the same stage as the electric motor was in the 1830s, when scientists displayed various spinning cranks and wheels, unaware that they would lead to electric trains, washing machines, fans and food processors. Molecular machines will most likely be used in the development of things such as new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, born 1944 in Paris, France. Ph.D. 1971 from the University of Strasbourg, France. Professor Emeritus at the University of Strasbourg and Director of Research Emeritus at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), France.

https://isis.unistra.fr/laboratory-of-inorganic-chemistry-jean-pierre-sauvage

Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, born 1942 in Edinburgh, UK. Ph.D. 1966 from  Edinburgh University, UK. Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

http://stoddart.northwestern.edu

Bernard L. Feringa, born 1951 in Barger-Compascuum, the Netherlands. Ph.D.1978 from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Professor in Organic Chemistry at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

www.benferinga.com

Further information and illustrations for editorial use, can be found at:

http://kva.se/nobelchemistry2016

Prize amount: 8 million Swedish krona, to be shared equally between the Laureates.
Further information: http://kva.se and http://nobelprize.org
Press contact: Jessica Balksjö Nannini, Press Officer, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 70 673 96 50, [email protected]
Expert: Olof Ramström, member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, phone +46 8 790 69 15, +46 70 433 42 60, [email protected]

Nobel Prize® is a registered trademark of the Nobel Foundation.

Press contact:
Jessica Balksjö Nannini, Press Officer, phone 46-8-673 95 44, 46-70-673 96 50, [email protected]

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organization whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 – They revealed the secrets of exotic matter

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The Nobel Prize in Physics

This year’s Laureates opened the door on an unknown world where matter can assume strange states. They have used advanced mathematical methods to study unusual phases, or states, of matter, such as superconductors, superfluids or thin magnetic films. Thanks to their pioneering work, the hunt is now on for new and exotic phases of matter. Many people are hopeful of future applications in both materials science and electronics.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 with one half to

David J. Thouless
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
and the other half to

  1. Duncan M. Haldane  
    Princeton University, NJ, USA                  

and

  1. Michael Kosterlitz 
    Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

”for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter” 

The three Laureates’ use of topological concepts in physics was decisive for their discoveries. Topology is a branch of mathematics that describes properties that only change step-wise. Using topology as a tool, they were able to astound the experts. In the early 1970s, Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless overturned the then current theory that superconductivity or suprafluidity could not occur in thin layers. They demonstrated that superconductivity could occur at low temperatures and also explained the mechanism, phase transition, that makes superconductivity disappear at higher temperatures.

In the 1980s, Thouless was able to explain a previous experiment with very thin electrically conducting layers in which conductance was precisely measured as integer steps. He showed that these integers were topological in their nature. At around the same time, Duncan Haldane discovered how topological concepts can be used to understand the properties of chains of small magnets found in some materials.

We now know of many topological phases, not only in thin layers and threads, but also in ordinary three-dimensional materials. Over the last decade, this area has boosted frontline research in condensed matter physics, not least because of the hope that topological materials could be used in new generations of electronics and superconductors, or in future quantum computers. Current research is revealing the secrets of matter in the exotic worlds discovered by this year’s Nobel Laureates.

More information and illustrations for editorial use, can be found at:

http://kva.se/nobelphysics2016

David J. Thouless, born 1934 in Bearsden, UK. Ph.D. 1958 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Emeritus Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

https://sharepoint.washington.edu/phys/people/Pages/view-person. aspx?pid=85

  1. Duncan M. Haldane, born 1951 in London, UK. Ph.D. 1978 from Cambridge University, UK. Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at Princeton University, NJ, USA.

www.princeton.edu/physics/people/display_person.xml?netid=haldane &display=faculty

  1. Michael Kosterlitz, born 1942 in Aberdeen, UK. Ph.D. 1969 from Oxford University, UK. Harrison E. Farnsworth Professor of Physics at Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

https://vivo.brown.edu/display/jkosterl

Prize amount: 8 million Swedish krona, with one half to David Thouless and the other half to be shared between Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz.
Further information: http://kva.se and http://nobelprize.org
Press contact: Jessica Balksjö Nannini, Press Officer, phone +46 8 673 95 44, +46 70 673 96 50, [email protected]
Experts: Thors Hans Hansson, phone +46 8 553 787 37, [email protected], and David Haviland, [email protected], members of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

Nobel Prize® is a registered trademark of the Nobel Foundation.

Press contact:
Jessica Balksjö Nannini, Press Officer, phone 46-8-673 95 44, 46-70-673 96 50, [email protected]

Experts: 
Thors Hans Hansson, phone +46 8 553 787 37, [email protected], and David Haviland, [email protected], members of the Nobel Committee for Physics.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organization whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

“Nanosciences: Education and its Industrial Applications”

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COMSTECH International Workshop on “Nanosciences: Education and its Industrial Applications”

December 13-15, 2016

Venue: COMSTECH Secretariat, 33-Constitution Avenue, G-5/2, Islamabad.

Application Deadline: October 30, 2016

Nanotechnology, with its wide applications in many areas of science, industry and society, such as pharmaceuticals, electronics, defense, energy, food, agriculture, oil, and gas etc., is one of the fast developing technologies.  Use of nanoscale (sizes of atoms & molecules) materials greatly enhances the performance and efficiency of industrial products. Since, properly trained human resource is the backbone of economic growth, the OIC member countries need to pay particular attention to nanotechnology in order to improve the performance of its industrial sector.

There is a dire need to train and develop human resource in the field of nanotechnology for getting maximum benefit from the opportunities offered by this recently emerged field of science & technology. COMSTECH is offering a three-day international workshop on“Nanosciences: Education and its Industrial Applications” to provide a platform for scientists, industrialists and policy makers to deliberate on the importance of education in nanosciences and the applications of nanotechnology in various fields.

Targeted Participants:

  • Researchers
  • Industrial Professionals
  • Policy Makers

Objectives of the Workshop:

  • Overview of Recent Developments in Nanotechnology and their Applications including Challenges and Opportunities for Deployments
  • Improving Education and Safety Guidelines for Nanosciences
  • Enhancing Collaboration within OIC Industrialists and with Research and Technology Centres Outside the OIC

Workshop Contents:

  1. Increasing Awareness of Nanoeducation at School and College Levels
  2. Interdisciplinary Education and Research in Nanosciences at University Level
  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructures
  4. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the Health Sectors – Potentials and Risks
  5. Industrial Applications of Nanotechnology

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting dedicated to Chemistry, 25-30 June 2017: Applicants Invited

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Interaction with Nobel Laureates in Lindau, Germany

67th Meeting on Chemistry, 25-30 June, 2017
6th Meeting on Economic Sciences, 22-26 August 2017

A unique opportunity for talented young graduates, master and doctoral students and postdoctoral young scientists in the field of Chemistry and Economic Sciences to enhance their knowledge, establish new contacts and discuss relevant topics through interaction with about 30 Nobel Laureates and 500 international young scientists in Chemistry and about 20 Nobel Laureates and 400 international young economists in panel discussions, seminars, and during the various events of social programme. Visits to some advanced research centres in Europe are also part of this program. The details are available at www.lindau-nobel.org.

The program is supported jointly by COMSTECH and the Lindau Council of Nobel Laureates Meetings. Nationals of OIC Member States studying or working in their respective countries and fulfilling the following eligibility criteria can apply. The program will provide economy class return air ticket and lodging boarding for one to two weeks in Germany.

ELIGIBILITY:

  • 16-years Education (Chemistry or Economic Sciences)
  • First-class throughout the academic career
  • Age up to 30 years in general, and 35-years for researchers including PhD holders/scholars
  • Post-docs should have published outstanding research papers in widely recognized academic journals

Application form is available from here. Complete application form along with CV, and Recommendation Letter from the Head of Institution or the relevant ministry should reach COMSTECH by the deadline at [email protected] .

THE LATE PROF. SYED QASIM MEHDI FIAS (PAKISTAN)

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It is with a sense of sadness and sorrow that the President and the Director General of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS) in Amman, Jordan; announce the passing away of the eminent Pakistani  scientist: Prof. Syed Qasim Mehdi (Pakistan), Fellow of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences. He was 75.

Prof. Syed Qasim Mahdi was the Director General, Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Division, A Q Khan Research Laboratory, Islamabad. Pakistan. He was born on 13 February 1941. He was a visiting professor of Molecular Biology and Genetic Medicine at HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Karachi University, and  the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, and Dow Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan. Dr Mehdi  was awarded his PhD from the Department of Biochemistry, Magdalen College, University of Oxford, UK, 1969. The title of his thesis was “Synthesis and Control of Bacterial Ribonucleic Acids.”  Prior to that, he did his MSc at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA, 1966. During his spell at the MIT, he undertook a research project entitled, “Early Kinetics of Induced Enzyme Synthesis” for which he received the Sigma Xi Award for “Outstanding Research” from the American Society for the Promotion of Research. He got his first degree from Lucknow University, India, 1963, in Biochemistry.

Since 1991, Dr Mehdi had been the Director General, Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Division, A Q Khan Research Laboratories, Islamabad, Pakistan. 1986-1991, Head, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Biomedical Division, Lahore, Pakistan. 1980-1992, Director (Scientific), the Alexander Medical Foundation, CA. USA. 1980-1986, Senior Research Fellow and Research Professor, Departments of Chemistry and Radiology, Cancer Biology Research Labs, Stanford University. 1976-1980 Senior Research Associate, Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, Stanford University.

Dr Mehdi was a visiting professor, Klinikum Steglitz, the Free University of Berlin, Germany, 1974-1976; Welcome Trust Research Fellow, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Oxford University, UK, 1972-1974; Nuffield Consultant Biochemist, Children’s Hospital, Boston, USA, 1964-1965; and Research Assistant, Biology Department, MIT, USA, 1963-1966.

Dr S Q Mehdi was Member/Fellow of the Biochemical Society (UK,1972-1997); The American Thyroid Association; The Oxford Union Society (life member); The Oxford-Cambridge Society; American Society for Human Genetics; American Association for the Advancement of Science; Fellow, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Pakistan; Fellow, Chemical Society of Pakistan; Fellow, Third World Academy of  Sciences (TWAS); Fellow, Pakistan Academy of Sciences; Member, Human Genome Organization (HUGO), USA; Member International Executive Committee, Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), USA. Prof. Mehdi has published well over 120 research papers, of which many were published in international journals.

He was elected a Fellow of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences in 2000.

Prof Syed Qasim Mehdi will be greatly missed by his colleagues and fellow scientists in Pakistan and the Islamic World. “Ina Lillah Wa Ina Ilaihi Raj’oon.”

IAS President, Fellows and staff offer their heartfelt condolences to his family and friends throughout the World.

Moneef R. Zou’bi

Director General

Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)
PO Box 830036, Amman 11183, Jordan.
Tel +9626-55-22-104 & +9626-55-23-385
Fax +9626-55-11-803
www.iasworld.org

Abdel Salam Majali

President

Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)
PO Box 830036, Amman 11183, Jordan.
Tel +9626-55-22-104 & +9626-55-23-385
Fax +9626-55-11-803
www.iasworld.org

IAS: Back in time; 8th IAS Conference, Water in the Islamic World: An Imminent Crisis, Khartoum, Sudan, 1994.

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dec-1994-khartoum

Eighth international conference in Khartoum (Sudan) in December 1994. The conference, entitled, Water in the Islamic World: An Imminent Crisis, was held under the patronage of the President of Sudan.

     The conference aimed to assess the water security situation in the Islamic world and to develop innovative proposals for future activities in water resources management.

     The conference was conceived as a joint activity between the Academy, and the National Centre for Research, Sudan. It was co-sponsored by Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, Sudan; the Islamic Development Bank (IDB); COMSTECH, UNESCO, ISESCO, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank.

The late Prof. Ibrahima Wone FIAS (Senegal)

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wone It is with a sense of sadness and sorrow that the President and the Director General of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS) in Amman, Jordan; announce the passing away of the eminent Senegalese  scientist: Prof. Ibrahima Wone, Fellow of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences. He was 90.

Dr Wone was born in 1926 in Matam/Senegal. Dr Ibrahima Wone is a preeminent professor of Public Health. He graduated from both the African School of Medicine and Pharmacy of Dakar and the University of Paris, he had attained the rank of Professeur Agrégé in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. This title confers upon him the status of professor, researcher and clinical practitioner within the University Hospital Centre complex.

During the ten year period, 1964 to 1974, Dr Wone held the positions of Director of Public Health for the Government of Senegal. In these official capacities he had traveled widely throughout the world, allowing him to became well versed in all aspects of his specialty, as is shown in his list of published works.

He was widely recognized as the “Dean” of Public Health professors in Sub-Saharan Africa with a large cadre of physicians having trained under him. Not surprisingly he was elected President and Founder of the African Network of Public Health Schools, and continued to be member and President of the Technical Board of the Center for Higher Education in Nursing Care, and was Director of the Institute of Health and Development, University of Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar, Professor Wone continued to do research and teach physicians and other health workers in the field of Public Health.

He was elected a Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences in 2000.

Prof Ibrahima Wone will be greatly missed by his colleagues and fellow scientists in Senegal and the Islamic World. “Ina Lillah Wa Ina Ilaihi Raj’oon.”

IAS President, Fellows and staff offer their heartfelt condolences to his family and friends throughout the World.

Moneef R. Zou’bi

Director General

Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)
PO Box 830036, Amman 11183, Jordan.
Tel +9626-55-22-104 & +9626-55-23-385
Fax +9626-55-11-803
www.iasworld.org

Abdel Salam Majali

President

Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)
PO Box 830036, Amman 11183, Jordan.
Tel +9626-55-22-104 & +9626-55-23-385
Fax +9626-55-11-803
www.iasworld.org

IAS Founding Patron Prince El-Hassan: Losing Christianity in the Middle East is ‘hammer blow’

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Prince-Hassan-bin-Talal-main_article_image

Wed 24 Aug 2016

By Antony Bushfield

Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan has said losing Christianity in the Middle East would be a “hammer blow” which would “destroy the richness of the tapestry” of the area. He has written an article with Ed Kessler, a high profile Jew and founder of the Woole Institute, in the Telegraph.

In it Prince Hassan condemns Islamic State saying he is “appalled… by the sickening attacks on our fellow human beings”.

“We also know that to lose Christianity from its birthplace would be to destroy the richness of the tapestry of the Middle East and a hammer blow to our shared heritage,” he said.

“The reality is that we are all one community, united by shared beliefs and history.

“But this is increasingly denied, with Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, or Daesh as it is known in our region, taking the lead both in justifying and carrying out these attacks.”

The pair say it is “abhorrent to us, as a Muslim and a Jew, to see Christianity and Christians under such savage assault across our region”.

The letter adds: “Christianity has been part of the essential fabric of the Middle East for two thousand years. Far from being a Western import as some, incredibly, now seem to suggest, it was born here and exported as a gift to the rest of the world.

“Christian communities have been intrinsic to the development of Arab culture and civilisation.”

Interfaith work is the only way to “end this dangerous slide towards hatred, self-destruction and fratricidal conflict,” they write.